ASSIGNMENT 3: ETHICS

16 Aug

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/14/education/14harvard.html

Why did the researcher do this? (opinion)

Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?

How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?

14 Responses to “ASSIGNMENT 3: ETHICS”

  1. Victoria Maksimets September 21, 2010 at 5:07 pm #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    -This research was done to inform other researchers on the experiments done on animals. I believe this was done so other researchers can use Dr. Hauser’s work, but because he was keeping bad records i think it would be impossible.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    -It is extremely important to keep good records, because every little detail matters especially for other researchers in the case where they might want to replicate his work.

    How might research differ in the controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    -There are both benefits and costs for doing research in the field and doing research in the lab.
    The research in the lab is in a controlled environment which means the that there is an affect on the participants of pressure of being in the lab and therefore they might not necessarily act as if they would in the natural environment, which would be a flaw of it. At the same time though the benefit is that the researcher can control for a variable he wants to manipulate, with keeping other variables constant and testing one thing. In the field the benefit is that the people act natural and get to be themselves, and don’t know they are being observed, the cost here is that you cannot control for anything.

  2. Jacqueline Gomez September 21, 2010 at 6:44 pm #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    The researcher did this to inform other researchers who are interested in experiments on animals, particularly Dr. Hauser work. Maybe wanting to use his results in his findings of whatever experiment was completed. However, this would not be possible for other researchers to do if Dr. Hauser was in fault of keeping bad records. As well as Dr. Hauser being on academic leave and his experiments being usure to be relied on and problems arousing in his laboratory.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    Many researchers may find difficulty and problems within the records and may come to the conclusion of fabrication or bad record keeping as for Dr. Hauser if he wasn’t in fault of bad records, he wouldn’t have been on academic leave. It is extremely important to keep good records in your research because other researchers will view these records in detailed and you want all your information to be detailed and accurate, to avoid any problems that may occur as in Dr. Hauser’s case.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In other words a laboratory versus field study, research may differ in a controlled setting because the participant knows that they are being watched; so therefore their actions and behavior may be different. As for a more naturalistic setting an individual acts naturally, they act upon in a field setting as they would do regularly. They are not being watched only sobserved, but the participant is not aware of this so therefore they act naturally. For example, in the New York Times article mentions how Dr. Hauser did experiments with animals. In the laboratory setting it may be difficult for the animals to pay attention, especially if they are use to the familiar faces such as the experimenters. Another, is a mother and child interacting with one another. The mother will act differently toward a child if she is in a controlled setting and being watched by experimenters. Rather than, being at home with the child and acting naturally toward the child on a regular basis.

  3. Yan (Amy) Huang September 21, 2010 at 10:38 pm #

    Why did the researcher do this? (opinion)
    Dr. Hauser may have engaged in some unethical research procedures for prestige and recognition. In psychology and other research field, it is an honor to discover new findings. However, the temptation to fabricate information rises as your reputation in the research field increases. Other researchers will expect you to publish new discoveries ever so often. Thus, the pressure to fabricate information to further your success increases because of the necessity for recognition. It wasn’t simply bad record keeping that got Dr. Hauser into trouble. Two of the papers mentioned in the article did not have existing data to back his claim, while Dr. Hauser retracted the third paper with no explanation. The incidents with those three papers suggest that the “real” data he gathered did not support his claim, thus he resorted to fabrication. After all, it is very unlikely to have so many bad records in so many of his research. Also, other researchers found Dr. Hauser’s research difficult to replicate and his data did not support his finding.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    Keeping a good record of your research provides credential to your research claims. The data you gathered are the best evidence against people who doubt your claims. Also, other researchers would want to know whether or not their replication of your research resulted in the same findings. The data you provide them gives them a sense of whether or not the results are consistent and valid.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In a controlled setting, researchers have control over the independent variable(s) in the researcher. A controlled setting will allow researchers to confidently say whether the independent variable caused a change in the dependent variable. In naturalistic settings however, researchers are limited as to what they can control. The study will be purely a correlation study and causes cannot be attributed to a single factor. At the same time, a more naturalistic setting will allow participants to be in their environment where they may or may not know that their behaviors are observed. The change in participants’ behavior may differ if the setting of their environment is shifted. Nevertheless, both methods are oftentimes used in research due to ethical or financial reasons.

  4. Terence Martin September 27, 2010 at 12:43 am #

    Why did the researcher do this? (opinion)
    Dr. Hauser falsified his info for recognition and to garner attention towards his research. The more significant publications Dr. Hauser had, the bigger his reputation grew.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    It is important to keep good records in your research for future use. In the case of Dr. Hauser’s investigation it is important to keep good records, in case future research wants to replicate the experiment. Good record keeping, down to every minute detail, can lead to a more accurate replication.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In a controlled setting there can always be limitations, the setting itself may not be able to reflect mundane situations. A controlled setting is arranged around getting expected results, as opposed to a naturalistic setting, where anything can happen. As stated in the article data collection may be slower in a naturalistic setting, but it is more mundane.

  5. Anam Asmat September 27, 2010 at 8:19 pm #

    Why did the researcher do this? (Opinion)
    I think the researcher did this to gain prestige within his field of work. He thought that the more research he did the better name he would have. He wanted surpass others; who were doing similar research. As we can see from the comments of his fellow researchers; they have felt that he rushes in all of his experiments. As a researcher, you have to be patient in studying and collecting data; especially with animals. I believe that the researcher should have not done this because it only exploited his reputation.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    It is very important to keep good records of your work in research. It is not essential for you but also for others, who want to replicate you work. Other researchers may want to replicate you study and see if their result match with yours. Keeping good records will also help you understand your work better for future references.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In a control setting, the researcher has control over the variables. The researcher can manipulate the variables in the study. Another factor of a control experiment is that, participates may behave a certain way because they know there are being watched. In a naturalistic setting, the researcher cannot have control anything. There are many limitations on what a researcher can and cannot do. It allows the participates to act freely and they are not worried about effecting the results of the study. Sometimes it takes longer to collect data in a naturalistic setting than in a controlled setting.

  6. aleris lorenzo September 28, 2010 at 12:40 am #

    WHY DID THE RESEARCHER DO THIS? (OPINION)
    In my opinion Dr. Hauser did what he did because of his way of being. Many of the sources in this article agreed that his personality and attempts at research were fast paced. He seems to have done his research too quickly and concluded results that weren’t entirely proven. But no one really knows what his reasoning can be. For all we know he could have just wanted to become famous. From what was written about him here, I would say I believe his personality and actions in research are just too fast and biased.

    WHY IS IT SO IMPORTANT TO KEEP GOOD RECORDS IN YOUR RESEARCH?
    It is important to keep good records in research for many reasons. One of those reasons being that replication to a study can be best done with the most information possible. Another important reason why good records are essential was stated in this article. If your findings are ever questioned, the study can be replicated and compared to the records kept. If the records are kept well, your findings can be compared to replicated studies and used to prove what you have done for your experiment. Another reason why good records are important is because they can be used for the researcher to look back at his work, or look at miniscule details of the experiment that weren’t mentioned in their published work (Although important factors of an experiment should always be mentioned).

    HOW MIGHT RESEARCH DIFFER IN CONTROLLED SETTINGS VERSUS IN MORE NATURALISTIC SETTINGS?
    Research in controlled settings can be a bit tricky. Animals in controlled laboratory settings can adjust and learn behaviors due to their new environments or researchers handling them. A good thing about controlled settings is that many outside variables can be controlled as well as situations in which animals or participants are placed in. An example can be if an experimenter wants to study how a monkey reacts to a stimuli without the influence of other animals. Research in a more naturalistic setting can be affected by other variables. The behavior of animals in their natural environments can be affected by other animals, weather, environmental problems (such as lack of food, or any other unusual changes in their environments at a given moment). Another problem mentioned in the article, is that naturalistic research may take more time to get results. A good thing about naturalistic research is that the observations are more true to the animals natural behavior. Without interfering animals would react and behave as they would normally making the results in part more true. But other variables can still play into their behaviors. Both controlled and naturalistic research have their positive and negative points.

  7. Erika-Lyn Repollo September 28, 2010 at 1:13 am #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    I think the researcher did this to build his reputation. Instead of building accurate and logical results, his experiment was rushed and therefore published without 100% accuracy. Perhaps he thought that having a lot of research done would help bring him fame which then caused Dr. Hauser to disregard the importance of reliability of the information in the experiments.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    It is important to keep good records in research because you need to be aware of every detail that was done during the experiment, for reliability, and for future references. Other researchers may want to do further studies on your experiment and they need precise information to continue accurately. Or if a study is ever questioned or doubted, they may refer to the researcher’s records to prove that certain aspects were indeed done and recorded.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    Research may differ in controlled settings versus more naturalistic settings because in a controlled setting everything is kept under control by the researcher. In a more naturalistic setting, something can occur and it may be out of the researcher’s hands to control it. Also, in a naturalistic setting something may affect a variable being tested without the knowledge of the researcher as opposed to a controlled setting where everything is organized according to how the research is desired to be performed.

  8. Susan Lam-Loi September 28, 2010 at 6:43 am #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    I think that Dr. Hauser published his records in order to gain additional recognition for his studies. He was probably more fervent in utilizing his time to publish results and publicizing his findings. He was merely focused on the quantity of publications rather than the quality of his research. An essential part of any experiment is the ability for another researcher to replicate the study. Dr. Hauser failed to commit to this prioritized duty as a researcher. Instead, he published inaccurate results and totally disregarded the need to be meticulous when collecting data. Dr. Hauser’s reputation, credibility, and intellect are shattered just because he failed to exercise proper methodologies of experimentation.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    It is highly important to keep good records in your research because other researchers may want to replicate the same design and/or expand upon your experiment and ideas. A log is helpful in detailing the step-by-step procedures of the experiment. Records are documented proofs that will support your claims and results. If necessary, it can be utilized as evidence to prove your study to be valid and reliable.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    Different studies require a different approach in experimentation. In a controlled setting, researchers are able to eliminate or limit the external factors that may impact their independent/dependent variables. In a naturalistic setting, researchers can observe and draw conclusions based on participants in their own natural environment. However, researchers are not in control of external factors that may affect an experiment’s results. There are pros and cons for both types of settings. Choice of setting for an experiment all depends what the research is trying to test.

  9. Orli Rosenthal September 28, 2010 at 12:04 pm #

    Why the researcher did this? (opinion) –
    Researchers often spend years trying to find important results to support their study and when the hopeful results fail to come it can be very frustrating. I think that what might have happened here was the result of frustration from years of not showing any meaningful findings that led Dr. Hauser to fabricate his research’s results.
    Why is it important to keep good records of your research?
    Keeping detailed records of your research is important in case other researchers in the future will be interested in replicating your work and see if the findings are similar. Also, in the case of Dr. Hauser, detailed records can be used to protect him against accusations. If one day in the future someone might come along and claim that your research is not valid, a good, thorough record of your research will protect that.
    How might research differ in controlled setting vs. more natural setting?
    Controlled setting s allows the researcher to manipulate and control what happens, whereas in a natural setting the researcher has no control as things happen naturally. In a natural setting the subject of the research is not aware he is being watched and therefore acts naturally which makes the research a little more trustworthy.

  10. Maria Gonzalez September 28, 2010 at 8:57 pm #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    If the accusations against Dr. Hauser are in fact true, then I believe he did it because of the money, recognition and acknowledgment that all his findings will bring him. As the article says he was still giving talks and getting credit for all his experiments until not too long ago. Even after all his records and computers were confiscated.
    The mind is a very powerful thing, sometimes if we tell a lie for so long, or try to convince ourselves of an specific thing, then we might start to believe it. Perhaps he wanted to discover something so bad, that he actually believed that the cotton-topped tamarind monkeys could recognize themselves in the mirror. He saw things that were not there and his research was flawed although he might not want to accept it.

    Why is it so important to keep good records on your research?
    To keep good records on your research is essential because it proves that your findings are based on a legitimate source. You or any other researcher can look at them, analyze them and come to the same or similar findings you did. Moreover it may indicate that the data collected was not fabricated. Also it is important so other researchers can replicate your experiment step by step. In order to do this you will have to show exactly how your experiment was conducted, information which is located in the records. If no one else can replicate your experiment while getting the same results then your experiment is worth nothing.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In controlled settings the research has more control over what is being done. In a more naturalistic setting the researcher has no manipulation whatsoever. In a controlled environment you can get animals to do certain things that you can’t do in a naturalistic environment. There might be objects, people and surroundings that the animal might experience differently in a laboratory then in their natural habitat living and acting normally. Specially while dealing with animals and their behavior we have to be aware that a laboratory will change behaviors and actions in the animals compared to what they would do in their natural environment.

  11. mikhail goltsman October 2, 2010 at 9:12 am #

    Why did the researcher do this? (Opinion)
    I think the researcher did what he did was because he wanted to gain recognition in his field. For researchers the most important thing is for their findings to be published. So with such pressure upon researchers, Dr. Hauser figured that he could build his reputation by falsifying his data and making it support his claim.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    It is important to keep good records in your research for a few reasons. The first being is that your data could be used in future studies and if your data is wrong or disorganized, it may effect the future studies in negative ways. Another reason is that if you keep good records of your data, no one can call your findings into question because you would have proof that are findings are correct based on your data.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    Researchers have control over the independent variables in the controlled setting. In the controlled setting, researchers easily say whether the independent variable caused a change in the dependent variable. In naturalistic settings, researchers cannot control everything. A naturalistic setting will allow participants to be in their own environment as their behavior is observed. The participants can either know or not know they are being observed. The change in participants’ behavior may differ if the setting of their environment is changed.

  12. Stephanie Reyes October 11, 2010 at 5:54 pm #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    The researcher, feeling the pressure of living up to being the next Steven Pinkler could have been so into his experiment that he didn’t record the information correctly. However in order for an experiment to be good, it has to be able to be duplicated with the same results. Since he didnt have proof and other scientist duplicated his experiment with different results, it could be possible that information was fabricated. He is a professor at a very prestigious school and the climb for fame was probably getting to his head.

    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    Future experimentors should be able to duplicate an experiment and get the same findings. If there is a similar experiment to what you want to do, it makes no sense to do it again and get the same finding that another scientist could have gotten 40 years ago. Another scientist could build on the experiment and come up with further findings. The information that someone gets should be clear and concise. It should be like a recipe; easily duplicated with the same findings.

    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In a controlled setting, a researcher has more control over the independent vaariable. In a naturalistic setting, it is really hard to manipulate variables. Sometimes, variables are not recognized because there are many factors that cannot be controlled that can have an affect on an experiment. A controlled setting may give you different results from what can be observed in a naturalistic setting. When doing an experiment, even though a controlled setting may be more convenient, naturalistic settings can give you more truthful accurate information.

  13. NaToya Bromfield October 13, 2010 at 9:19 pm #

    NaToya C. Bromfield
    October 13, 2010
    Psych 249: social Experimental Psychology

    1) Why did the researcher do this? (Opinion)
    Dr. Hauser seemed to be more interested in being recognized for his experiment with tamarins instead of taking the time to make sure he had all the proper procedures and guidelines down. One of the most important aspects of being a researcher is being able to have your work published and Dr. Hauser was just focused on the fame. The article made him seem very sneaky in the sense that he wanted to build a career for himself by embellishing and falsifying his research. Researchers need to keep track of all their data and all the methods they took in going about the research so that others can perform the experiment and get the same results.
    2) Why is it important to keep records in your research?
    It is important to keep track research so that if there is a chance someone is skeptical about your findings and does not believe you he or she can then perform the experiment themselves. Also, if someone was to accuse you of copying them it’s good to keep record of when you perform everything so that they cannot mess up your research or slander your name.
    3) How might reach differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    In controlled settings the researcher has more power over the results and can manipulate the environment to bring forth a certain result. There are also a lot of limitations. In a naturalistic setting it’s more spontaneous and the results can happen anytime and it’s unpredictable. Also, the researcher is not manipulating anything and there are more freedoms for the participants.

  14. GAMDEN SEIDI December 10, 2010 at 12:58 am #

    Why did the researcher do this?
    My opinion on why Dr. Hauser conducted this research was to receive reputation and recognition for his studies. However his experiment on animals was unethical and his records were not accurate.
    Why is it so important to keep good records in your research?
    Its important to keep good records in your research because with a clear and accurate data of your research, one playing the devil’s advocate could never ruin your research or it will be hard for them to ruin your research. Another reason would be when other researchers want to conduct the same study as yours it would be easy enough to just to follow your records of your study.
    How might research differ in controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings?
    The difference between controlled settings versus in more naturalistic settings is that in a controlled settings the participants is observed, where they are taking away from the normal environment. This might affect the behaviors of the participants. However in a naturalistic setting the participants are observed in their normal environment where their behavior would more of a norm.

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